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Thursday, March 30, 2017

Biology: Cells, Photosynthesis & More

Biology: Cells, Photosynthesis and More

Cellular respiration and photosynthesis form a critical cycle of energy and matter that supports the continued existence of life on earth. Describe the stages of cellular respiration and photosynthesis and their interaction and interdependence including raw materials, products, and amount of ATP or glucose produced during each phase. How is each linked to specific organelles within the eukaryotic cell. What has been the importance and significance of these processes and their cyclic interaction to the evolution and diversity of life?

Photosynthesis: A plant captures the sunlight and then turns the sunlight into carbon dioxide, and the water into oxygen, and glucose.
In the first stage of photosynthesis: captures the sunlight.
In the second stage of photosynthesis: the energy is used to change sunlight into carbon dioxide, and the water into oxygen and glucose.
Autotroph: An organism that can make its own food during photosynthesis.
Cellular Respiration: how the cell withdraws the glucose. The glucose is then broken down and in the cell to release energy. There are two kinds of respiration, they are related because they both involve the need for oxygen.
First stage of respiration: This takes place in the cytoplasm. The Glucose molecule is broken down into a much smaller molecule, and a smaller amount of energy is released. Oxygen is not needed.
Second stage of respiration: This takes place in the mitochondria. Small molecules are once again broken down. Oxygen is needed and lots energy is created.
Chemical equation of photosynthesis: carbon dioxide + water + sunlight = glucose + oxygen synthesis – building process and: 6CO2 + 6H2O + Light Energy → C6H12O6 + 6O2
Chemical equation of cellular respiration: glucose + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water + energy decomposition – breaks down and: C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + Chemical Energy (in ATP)
Products of respiration: carbon dioxide and water.
Organisms that go through respiration: Plants and animals
Reactants of respiration: glucose and oxygen
Products of photosynthesis: glucose and oxygen
Heterotroph: an organism that has to find an external food source.
Cytoplasm and mitochondria: organelle respiration take place.
Nucleus: Stores DNA and controls most of the cells process
Ribosome: Makes proteins using coded instructions sent from the nucleus
Cytoplasm: Material between the cell membrane and nucleus.
Cytoskeleton: Helps the cell keep its shape.
Cell wall: Protects and Supports the cell.
Cell Membrane: the cells boundary from its environment, to wit it regulates what enters and exits.
Nuclear envelope: a double membrane that surrounds the nucleus.
Flagella: long whip like structure used for movement
Cilia: Hairlike, short, projections used for feeding and movement
Chromosome: It contains genetic information
Vacuole: stores materials
Lysosomes: Enzymes that break down lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins

Stages of cellular respiration.
1.      Glycolis:
Splitting the glucose: The word glycolysis means “glucose splitting,” which is exactly what happens in this stage. Enzymes split a molecule of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate (known as pyruvic acid). It occurs in several steps. Glycolysis, glucose is split into two 3-carbon pyruvate molecules. It releases energy, and is transferred to ATP.

Results of Glycolis: Energy is needed at the start of glycolysis to split the glucose molecule into two pyruvate molecules. These two molecules go on to stage II cellular respiration. The energy to split glucose is provided by two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis proceeds, energy is released, and the energy used to make four molecules of ATP. There is a net gain of two ATP molecules during glycolysis. High-energy electrons are also transferred to molecules of NAD+ to produce two molecules of NADH, another energy-carrying molecule. NADH is used in stage III of cellular respiration to make more ATP.

Anaerobic and aerobic respiration: A mitochondrion has an inner and outer membrane. The space between the inner and outer membrane is called the intermembrane space. The space enclosed by the inner membrane is called the matrix. The second stage of cellular respiration, the Krebs cycle, takes place in the matrix. The third stage, electron transport, takes place on the inner membrane.

Cellular Respiration Stage II: the Krebs Cycle: The Krebs cycle starts with pyruvic acid from glycolysis. Each small circle in the diagram represents one carbon atom. Before the Krebs cycle begins, pyruvic acid, which has three carbon atoms, is split apart and combined with an enzyme known as CoA, which stands for coenzyme A. The product of this reaction is a two-carbon molecule called acetyl-CoA. The third carbon from pyruvic acid combines with oxygen to form carbon dioxide, which is released as a waste product. High-energy electrons are also released and captured in NADH.

Steps of the Kreb Cycle: The Krebs cycle actually begins when acetyl-CoA combines with a four-carbon molecule called OAA (oxaloacetate) This produces citric acid, which has six carbon atoms. This is the reason the Krebs cycle is also called the citric acid cycle. After citric acid forms, it goes through a series of reactions that release the energy. Energy is captured in molecules of NADH, ATP, and FADH2, another energy-carrying compound. Carbon dioxide is also released as a waste product of these reactions. The final step of the Krebs cycle regenerates OAA, the molecule that began the Krebs cycle. This molecule is needed for the next turn through the cycle. Two turns are needed because glycolysis produces two pyruvic acid molecules when it splits glucose.

Results of the Kreb Cycle: After the second turn through the Krebs cycle, the original glucose molecule have been broken down completely. All six of its carbon atoms have combined with oxygen to form carbon dioxide. The energy from its chemical bonds have been stored in a total of 16 energy-carrier molecules. These molecules are now named as follows:
  • 4 ATP (including 2 from glycolysis)
  • 10 NADH (including 2 from glycolysis)
  • 2 FADH2
Cellular Respiration Stage III:
Electron Transport: Electron transport will be the final stage of aerobic respiration. In what will be the stage, energy from NADH and FADH2, which results from the Krebs cycle, is transferred to ATP.
Transporting Electrons:
High-energy electrons are released from NADH and FADH2, and they move along electron transport chains, like those that were used in photosynthesis. The electron transport chains are on the inner membrane of the mitochondrion. As the high-energy electrons are transported along the chains, some of their energy is captured. Notice only some, not all. This energy is used to pump hydrogen ions (from NADH and FADH2) across the inner membrane, from the matrix into the intermembrane space.
Making ATP:
The pumping of hydrogen ions across the inner membrane creates a greater concentration of the ions in the intermembrane space than in the matrix. This chemiosmotic gradient causes the ions to flow back across the membrane into the matrix, where their concentration is lower. ATP synthase acts as a channel protein, helping the hydrogen ions cross the membrane. It also acts as an enzyme, forming ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate. After passing through the electron-transport chain, the “spent” electrons combine with oxygen to form water. This is why oxygen is needed; in the absence of oxygen, this process cannot occur.
How much ATP?
You have seen how the three stages of aerobic respiration use the energy in glucose to make ATP. How much ATP is produced in all three stages? Glycolysis produces 2 ATP molecules, and the Krebs cycle produces 2 more. Electron transport begins with several molecules of NADH and FADH2 from the Krebs cycle and transfers their energy into as many as 34 more ATP molecules. All told, then, up to 38 molecules of ATP can be produced from just one molecule of glucose in the process of aerobic respiration.
Getting to know the Organelle:
In cell biology, an organelle is one of several structures with a special function of its own, the organelle is suspended in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell.
Eukaryotes are the most structurally complex known cell type, and by definition are organized by smaller inside compartments, that are enclosed by lipid membranes that resemble the outermost cell membrane.
The larger organelles, such as the nucleus and vacuoles, are visible with moderate magnification, they were among the first biological discoveries made after the invention of the microscope.
      A very informative site that educates you on these types of Biology information is this: Here at Mr. Potters Web site, you will learn quite a bit, and even have a diagram, explaining it as well.
      Personally, I have found that writing about these things is not as easy as visually displaying them and seeing them. Seeing the cell diagrams, helps one to understand what it is you are trying to explain much easier, and see what goes where, kind of like a puzzle. Allow me to show you my simple example.
      Although there is no such thing as a simple cell, I am going to share with you, a graphic of a simple cell, displaying the diagram and wording of what goes where. Once you see this, you will also see, there is no such thing as a simple cell.
      I've included graphics to help show provide visionary explanations through out, I hope that helps.

      As you can well enough see, visually, a cell is much easier to see and explain. Now you can see the cell wall, the cell membrane, and even the ribosomes, which I have mentioned in this paper. The advantage you have now, is you can physically ‘see’ where it is that they ‘should’ go. I wanted to share this, because seeing, helps to understand. Many people learn much better through visualization.
Now I would like to visually give you photosynthesis:

      As you can see, the source is right on the page, Kids discover. The easiest way to explain things is so that children can comprehend them.
      Without photosynthesis, life as we know it would cease to exist. The plants need sunlight, which create oxygen, and carbon, and many other things that animals and humans need to survive. Plants are not just on the earth, but they are also underwater, in rocks, and within the soil itself. Plants are everywhere, and they are what help us live and breathe and exist. Without them, and the sunlight, and rain, there would be no tomorrow. No life as we know it, no reason for being, no breath of fresh air. Nothing.
For a better understanding of cell organelles, I have decided to feature a graphic of that as well:

     Again we see the ribosomes, and even the nucleus, but now we see the golgi complex. This I wanted to know more about, so I looked, so that I would physically see where it was located. Now I can further understand it better. To see, is to know, to know is to understand.
     Inside of every plant, and every human being, and every creature, there are cells, structured with DNA, the DNA is coding which is the plans to form this creature, or person, or even plant. The coding, the DNA are the blueprints. The blueprints to the soul. We wouldn’t be what we are, without the genetic coding of DNA.

References and Resources:
My Son’s Biology Notes from High School. He still had them. He has his notes from all of his classes, and teachers. Rockledge High School, Rockledge Florida. He said he taught Biology to where he could learn it and they always defined the words in terms that were understandable, because they were an SLD (Slow Learning Disability) and ADD & ADHD students. The teacher made Science fun. This from my Son who hated School. Fact.
The graphics I simply typed in exactly what it was I was wanting to SEE and describe and share and learn, and sought out images only. I simply forgot to grab the URL’s. My apologies.
Helpful sight, which I referenced:

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