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Thursday, March 30, 2017

Biology: Learning About Cells

Learning About Cells:
Diagram of a human cell
I researched my High School Science book which I accidentally still have, and my Son has his Junior high one, and my husband and I read through them reading about the cells we have been studying this week in School.

I have learned, again, that cells are something that we need. This I already knew. I remembered learning about the nucleus and nuclei and how they are always protected, and the biggest. And I remembered how the cells determine exactly how we are made up. But I never remembered learning anything about a Eukaryotic cell in my life.

The cell wall: The think protective cell walls provide support and this wall also help maintain the shape of the cell. The cell wall will help prevent the cell wall from bursting and taking in too much fresh water. The cells of fungi, even plants, and algae have these thick walls.

The Plasma Membrane: All cells prokaryatic and eukaryatic, they have what is referred to as a plasma membrane. The membrane is made of proteins and phosopholipids. These regulate the  movement of the materials between the outside and the inside of the cells, and function as their barrier.

Cilia and Flagella: supported internally with a structural system of microtubules these extensions of the cell are covered with plasma membrane, somewhat like skin and bone. Flagella (singular flagellum), which are longer than cilia, aid in cell movement. Cilia (singular cilium), which are able to put together in a coordinated manner, can also help direct materials around the outside of the cell.

The distinction between prokaryotic and eukaroyotic calls happens to be the presence of the membrane bound organelles. A feature that only the eukaroyets have. Organelles of the endomembrane system separate the functions within the eukaroyotic cells.

Within the Eukaroyic Endomembrane System we have the following:

The Nucleus: This is usually the largest and most visible in the eukaroyotic cell. This is protected by a double layer of nuclear membrane. This contains the cells genome. This is the cells main genetic instructions to form its DNA. 

The Endoplasmic Reticulum: To abbreviate this is the ER and it is making and shipping lipids and proteins off into their hollow tubes extending off of the nuclear membrane. There are two types, rough and smooth. The rough ER is covered ribosomes. Non membrane bound which are the sites of protein synthesis within the cell. 

The Golgi Body: The Golgi body modifies cellular molecules and coordinates the packaging and shipment of materials out of the cell. It's also the only organelle that can generate lysosomes.

The Vesicles: The endomembrane organelles are covered in a lipid bilayer, pieces of an organelle (such as the endoplasmic reticulum or the Golgi body) can enclose a molecule for transport, break off like a little bubble, and travel to another organelle, or to the plasma membrane.

The Lysosomes:  Enzymes that can degrade organic materials. They function in cellular digestion and recycling materials within the cell.​

The Perioxsomes: Peroxisomes are armed with enzymes that break down dangerous oxygen free radicals. These are required by cells that use aerobic respiration (oxygen to extract energy from food) and made by the endoplasmic reticulum.

The Cytoplasm: Cytoplasm includes both the liquid (called cytosol) and the suspended organelles.​ The inside of the cell, between the nucleus and plasma membrane, is filled with a gel-like fluid in which the organelles are suspended.

The Microtubule Organizing Center (MTOC): In animal cells the MTOC is called the centrosome, which consists of two centrioles. In plant cells, the nuclear envelope appears to function as the main MTOC. 

The Cytoskeleton: The cytoskeleton supports the cells structure, anchors and helps transport organelles, and aids in cell division.

The Mitochondria: A multi-purpose molecule that carries energy for use within the cell. These cells are double membraned.

My determinations is that all of these cells and membranes work together as a systematic perfect little family. Together they help whatever it is they are in to survive, reproduce, breathe, and function. To this day, I don’t recall ever learning anything about the Eurokratic cell. And I remember photosynthesis and plant cells, and organelles and DNA. I recall a lot from School. Even dissecting the worm. I just wonder if we ever did learn it?

The Point I am making here, is that I feel I have learned something new. Therefore learning something new, is a good thing. If you’re not learning something new daily, you’re not living. 

Then I decided to go on: and obtain a definition :
The definition of the word eukaryote is as follows:

Any of various single-celled or multicellular organisms of the domain Eukaryota, characterized by cells that contain a distinct membrane-bound nucleus and by the occurrence of DNA transcription inside the nucleus and protein synthesis in the cytoplasm, in contrast to prokaryotes.

Then I decided I wanted to cite a page. Here is the page I am going to cite:

“Eukaryotic Cells and Prokaryotic Cells”
“There are two primary types of cells: eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells are called so because they have a true nucleus. The nucleus, which houses DNA, is contained within a membrane and separated from other cellular structures. Prokayotic cells however, have no true nucleus. DNA in a prokaryotic cell is not separated from the rest of the cell but coiled up in a region called the nucleoid.” (Cited from the site listed above.) 

Can cells reproduce? Yes.
Can cells get cancer? Yes.
Can cells determine the sex? Yes.

The above questions are many questions ask by young and old alike. People are still learning about cells to this day.

Mankind is reproducing body parts on mice, to help burn victims. Humans are even creating test tube babies, and started that back in the sixties. They will tell you they have stopped, but we all know they haven’t. Cloning. That is supposed to be illegal, and not supposed to be happening. But we all know the government, and we all know it’s happening. I mean think about it. 

There are so many diseases in this World today, mankind is going to experiment to try to cure them, and experiment to try and become the new and improved ‘God.’ 

This is why the Future doesn’t hold promise for us, and the Aliens are visiting us. We are them, and they are us. We have made some kind of mistake, and they are trying to warn us. But all we do is shoot first, rather than listen. Mankind will never learn. All mankind see’s is hate. Sad as it may sound, if you honestly think about it, it is true.

We shot down the ship in the forties, we’ll shoot down every single one of them. We will assume they are here to hurt us. We are not a Nation of love. We are here to hate. Communication is not one of our key features. Someone needs to rethink what it is we are doing.

Sorry, I say what I think, and think what I say.

Your opinions is always welcome in the comments section!

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