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Monday, March 13, 2017

Genetic Characteristics of DNA



   Genetic Characteristics of DNA




  Our understanding of genetic inheritance and the function of DNA in producing the characteristics of the individual have been developing for more than 150 years. Consider our current state of knowledge. Link genetic characteristics to DNA structure. Explain how DNA through the process of protein synthesis is responsible for the ultimate expression of the characteristics in the organism. Describe how interference in protein synthesis can result in disruption of cellular and bodily processes? How does the significance of one class of proteins, the enzymes, relate to the importance of proper nutrition throughout life?

     I wasn’t sure exactly what to do at first, so I simply typed in the search bar: “genetic characteristics of DNA”. What I found here I found worthy of sharing because it is a test, and I think it should be shared:

     You rebuild the DNA structure. I think it is educational and should be shared further, to educate others, so I am sharing it here. 

     Then I went here, because honestly I thought it was something I personally wanted to know myself: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-are-traits-passed-on/

     And here is what I learned on this site:

     A professor of the cell biology and biochemistry lab at the Texas Tech University by the name of Stuart Ravnik, in the Health Sciences Center, is the one who summarized the answers to this question:

     “How are traits passed on through DNA?”

     Ravnik summarizes the answer to what he claims is a simple question: To understand how DNA is organized, is to start with its basic building blocks. It consists of 4 different sugars, and those sugars interact with one another in a specific way. These 4 sugars are called: nucleotide bases. Each one has a specific name of its own: (A) Adenine, (T) Thymine, (C) Cytosine, (G) Guanine. Putting these four sugars into sequence it goes like this: GATCATCCG. This gives us a piece of DNA or a short word. A longer piece of DNA can give us different words, or even sentences, that will describe how to build a protein. This will tell us how and when and where the protein should be made. All of DNA is a pattern or blueprint if you will, giving us the sequence order for a human, or animal or plant or microorganism. 

     Active stretches of DNA must be copied as a similar message molecule called RNA. The words in the RNA then need to be read to produce the proteins, which are themselves stretches of words made up of a different alphabet, the amino acid alphabet must be copied as a similar message molecule called RNA. To better understand everything, consider the trait for blue eyes. 

    DNA for blue-eye gene is copied as blue-eye RNA message. The message is translated to the blue protein pigments found in the cells of the eye. For all the traits that we have, skin color, hair color, there are a group of genes that control said trait by producing the first message and then the protein. Sperm cells and eggs cells are specialized to carry DNA in a way that, at fertilization, a new individual with both traits from its mother and father are created. 

     Again, cited, not copied word for word from this page: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-are-traits-passed-on/

     In other words, a piece of both parents DNA is structured and message and used and put with the RNA and formed and used to make a whole new person. Consisting of both parents, but making one.

      Most people already know this, especially if they intend to have children.



     DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the hereditary material in all organisms. Nearly every cell in a person’s body has the same DNA. Most DNA is located in the cell nucleus (where it is called nuclear DNA), but a small amount of DNA can also be found in the mitochondria (where it is called mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA).

    DNA is the blue prints that determine who and what we are, or what it is that is being made, such as plant or animal. It is the path to creation of the product.

     Next: Explain how DNA through the process of protein synthesis is responsible for the ultimate expression of the characteristics in the organism.

     I went to this site: http://www.biotopics.co.uk/genes/trans.html

     The title of the page states: “How DNA Controls Protein Synthesis by Means Of A Base Code.”

     The Author of the site: Richard Steane

     Control of protein synthesis


     When a cell is not dividing, it’s performing series’ of activities under the control of the DNA in its nucleus. In order to do this, information from certain portions of the DNA in the chromosomes are taken out into the cytoplasm, to be used to make (synthesise) control proteins (enzymes, etc) for the cell.

     There are 2 parts to this process: transcription and translation.

     Transcription

     Two strands of the DNA molecule are temporarily split by enzymes which cause a short part to be copied into a similarly short section of RNA molecule. The copying is on the same lines as already explained, (A for T, G for C, C for G) except that a different base called U (uracil) replaces T (thymine). Also, RNA is only made of a single strand, and it contains a different side chain subunit.

     The RNA copy from one section of DNA, which usually corresponds to a single gene, is called
messenger RNA (mRNA).

     Again citing: http://www.biotopics.co.uk/genes/trans.html

     The above explains in a more thorough process, the steps to creation of a human, animal, plant or organism.

     Next: Describe how interference in protein synthesis can result in disruption of cellular and bodily processes?

https://www.boundless.com/microbiology/textbooks/boundless-microbiology-textbook/antimicrobial-drugs-13/functions-of-antimicrobial-drugs-154/inhibiting-protein-synthesis-779-7346/

     “A protein synthesis inhibitor is a substance that stops or slows the growth or proliferation of cells by disrupting the processes that lead directly to the generation of new proteins. It usually refers to substances, such as antimicrobial drugs, that act at the ribosome level. The substances take advantage of the major differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic ribosome structures which differ in their size, sequence, structure, and the ratio of protein to RNA. The differences in structure allow some antibiotics to kill bacteria by inhibiting their ribosomes, while leaving human ribosomes unaffected.”
     “Translation in prokaryotes involves the assembly of the components of the translation system which are: the two ribosomal subunits (the large 50S & small 30S subunits), the mRNA to be translated, the first aminoacyl tRNA, GTP (as a source of energy), and three initiation factors that help the assembly of the initiation complex . The ribosome has three sites: the A site, the P site, and the E site (not shown in ). The A site is the point of entry for the aminoacyl tRNA. The P site is where the peptidyl tRNA is formed in the ribosome. The E site which is the exit site of the now uncharged tRNA after it gives its amino acid to the growing peptide chain.”


     Source: Boundless. “Inhibiting Protein Synthesis.” Boundless Microbiology. Boundless, 26 May. 2016. Retrieved 06 Jun. 2016 from https://www.boundless.com/microbiology/textbooks/boundless-microbiology-textbook/antimicrobial-drugs-13/functions-of-antimicrobial-drugs-154/inhibiting-protein-synthesis-779-7346/

     Source: Boundless. “Inhibiting Protein Synthesis.” Boundless Microbiology. Boundless, 26 May. 2016. Retrieved 06 Jun. 2016 from https://www.boundless.com/microbiology/textbooks/boundless-microbiology-textbook/antimicrobial-drugs-13/functions-of-antimicrobial-drugs-154/inhibiting-protein-synthesis-779-7346/

    Citing: https://www.boundless.com/microbiology/textbooks/boundless-microbiology-textbook/antimicrobial-drugs-13/functions-of-antimicrobial-drugs-154/inhibiting-protein-synthesis-779-7346/

     I chose to share as a quote that section, because it very much so seemed quite a bit more complicated to me. This way, I was certain to have it be understood by me, and maybe those who read this. I am not one who learns easily, so I want what I learn to sink in. In order to do so, I must read and reread several times.

     Next: How does the significance of one class of proteins, the enzymes, relate to the importance of proper nutrition throughout life?

     This site: http://www.enzymeessentials.com/HTML/print_tour.html

     Is truly quite helpful in explaining everything needed to know regarding the health and nutrition about your enzymes and nutrition. I was especially excited to learn that there are special enzymes that you can take for certain things, such as anxiety and stress. I was unaware of that. To find that section on this page, truly excited me!

     Allow me to share:

     Are there certain enzymes I can take for special health conditions?
Here are some digestive enzymes designed to address specific problems or conditions.
  • If you have occasional indigestion or heartburn you may find relief using GastroZyme.
  • If you experience occasional anxiety or occasional insomnia then CalmZyme is an excellent product.
  • Occasional constipation may be alleviated with only two to three ReleaseZyme capsules per day to provide a natural way to regularity.
  • For those who have extra difficulty digesting fats (lipids), then LypoZyme should be considered with particularly heavy and fatty meals.
  • Systemic Enzymes that contain high doses of protease can help support the immune system and improve circulation.
  • For those people who are serious about a weight management program, then BalanceZyme Plus can assist in balancing your appetite. This excellent product should be taken immediately (15-30 minutes) prior to a meal. It is also often used in conjunction with LypoZyme.
     I’ve copied and pasted exactly, because it shares their linking to their products, and explanations. Again to this site: http://www.enzymeessentials.com/HTML/print_tour.html

      Now I don’t know if this is just something this page is advertising, which would be upsetting if it were true, because yes there is an 800 number after this, and a Better Business Bureau accredited rating. But still, the page itself, explains a lot of good and helpful information. Whether or not one would chose to buy their product is another thing. I’m not going to buy it, however, if there is another way around it, maybe. I prefer melatonin for sleep. And valerian root for stress myself. Yes, I am familiar with herbs and vitamins.

     In order to be a happy person, one must feed the body exactly what it needs and wants. Feed it only jalapenos and you will have one upset body and person. Just one example.

My references and resources are used within and on the templates on the places where they are justified. I am told once doing this, one doesn’t need to relist them as references and resources. If I am wrong, I apologize.

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